But the story of nicholas flamel is the story of a book for the most part. The present volume of the jewish encyclopedia has been carried out on the principles. Abraham s bosom contrasts with the destination of a. The book of judith is a story written for household reading, while it may properly be classed as didactic, yet it is one of those popular tales in which the chief concern of the writer is with the telling of the story rather than with the pointing of a moral, and in which the wish to interest takes precedence even of the desire to instruct. He may have been a historical individual before he became a figure of. The book has a long and complex history, but its final form is probably due to a priestly redaction i. Christian mythology directly inherited many of the narratives. The proud and aggressive ruler depicted in judith is the successor of the character of sennacherib in isaiah 3638. Tablet magazines podcast unorthodox is coming to the valley of the sun jewish community center on dec.
Book of judith encyclopedia of the bible bible gateway. Story of the deliverance of the city of bethulia by a beautiful widow, who by a ruse. Abraham simply and directly destroys idols by setting fire to them. Judith is the fourth book of the old testament apocrypha in those versions of the bible following the greek septuagint generally roman catholic and orthodox versions. E53 1986 contains several sections describing the holocaust. Even jahn considers that the genealogy of judith is inexplicable on the hypothesis that the story is a mere fiction introductio, vienna, 1814, p. Judith has been a favourite of latterday playwrights.
The early church, however, held this book in high honor. What five books should you read to be an educated jew. The text of the present book of abraham is likely a digest of a much larger abrahamic work, as it moves rapidly from one episode to another. Explores the joseph smith papyrus and demonstrates that joseph smiths claim that he had translated the book of abraham from it was a fabrication. Entry for judith, book of the 1901 jewish encyclopedia one of 8 bible encyclopedias freely available, this encyclopedia is a descriptive record of the history, religion and customs of the jewish people. Associate editor of the staxdarji dictionary, the colum bian cyclopedia, etc. According to the book of genesis, abraham married keturah after the death of his first wife, sarah. Whatever the reasons, the rabbis did not count judith among their scriptures, and the reformation adopted that position. Jan 22, 2020 the jewish encyclopedia esthers reception by the king, taking the hebrew. Holocaust, jewish 1938 1945 reference and general collection materials in located in moodyjones library encyclopedias alpher, joseph. Judith synonyms, judith pronunciation, judith translation, english dictionary definition of judith. Edict permitting in the the jews to defend themselves, after viii. The name judith is hebrew praised or jewess, the feminine form of judah. Ruth is a moabite woman who marries a judean immigrant named mahlon 1.
Judith, book of international standard bible encyclopedia. The book of judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the septuagint and the catholic and eastern orthodox christian old testament of the bible, but excluded from the hebrew canon and assigned by protestants to the apocrypha. Here is the first chapter in the section dealing with judith from my book unusual bible interpretations. Thus it seems fairly certain that he was not an eponymous ancestor. It recounts an attack on the jews by an army led by holofernes, nebuchadnezzars general. Abrahams name in contrast to the names isaac, jacob, israel, and joseph appears only as a personal name in the bible, never a tribal or local designation. The book of jubilees, sometimes called lesser genesis leptogenesis, is an ancient jewish. Judith, book of the 1901 jewish encyclopedia bible. Uptodate and designed for easy access, the encyclopedia presents information on the major aspects of the holocaust in.
The book of judith is a deuterocanonical book of the christian bible. A mostly comprehensive guide to judaism from the makers of unorthodox, a large coffee table book crams in just about everything you need to know about. Modern biblical scholarship has revealed anachronisms in genesis that cloud attempts to place chronologically abraham s historical existence. I believe we have not yet appointed a hebrew, president abraham lincoln. Nicholas flamel had acquired some knowledge of the hermetic art. Nehama leibowitz, new studies in bereshit, genesis.
Two print editions appear to be currently available. Vice chairman rabbinic cabinet jewish theological seminary. The book contains numerous historical anachronisms, which is why many scholars now accept it as nonhistorical. The book of judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the septuagint and the catholic and eastern orthodox christian old testament of the bible, but excluded by jews and assigned by protestants to the apocrypha.
According to the bible, abraham or abram was the father of the hebrews. Leprous lazarus is carried by the angels to that destination after death. Jan 02, 2020 the book of judith, believed to be written in the late second century or early first century b. The oldest extant version is the septuagint and might either be a translation from hebrew or composed in greek. Medieval hebrew versions understood the story in the context of the hasmonean revolt. From abraham to zabars and everything inbetween is not exactly the truth of the book s contents. Although the story is set in the babylonian period, the book of judith is thought to have originated at the time of the maccabees. Aug 15, 2011 the word apocrypha means literally things hidden away. The book of judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the septuagint and the catholic and eastern orthodox christian old testament of the bible, but excluded from jewish texts and assigned by protestants to the apocrypha. The book of judith is included in the septuagint, which was translated into greek for the use of hellenized jews in alexandria.
The book contains numerous historical anachronisms, which is why some scholars now accept it as nonhistorical. The oldest extant text of judith is the preservation of 15. The name bethulia in hebrew can be associated, in an allegorical sense, with bethel house of god. The book of numbers is the fourth book of the torah. If treated as a real geographical name, it can be explained as a composite word built from betulah, virgin, and jah, the proper name of god, so literally yhwhs virgin.
To turn its pages is to explore the wonder and excitement and awesome adventure of what it means to be a jew. The persecution of antiochus epiphanes would provide a favorable background for this type of lit. The story revolves around judith, a daring and beautiful widow, who is upset with her jewish countrymen for not trusting. Hillel gruenberg, stefanie halpern, robert harris, judith hauptman. For those not familiar with these books, lets begin with a quick synopsis. The other six are the prophets of ad, thamud, and midian, and noah, lot, and moses. The book of judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the septuagint and the catholic and. Soltes, a professor at georgetown university, uses the question of what makes art jewish to guide his examination of thousands of years worth of art and architecture. Most people do not know who judith was and, therefore, are unable to compare her with ruth and esther. Nachum interviewed stephanie butnick, coauthor of the newish jewish encyclopedia. The word apocrypha means literally things hidden away.
Entry for abraham, apocalypse of the 1901 jewish encyclopedia one of 8 bible encyclopedias freely available, this encyclopedia is a descriptive record of the history, religion and customs of the jewish. To avoid these sorts of problems, i have divided jewish books into 10 categories and. Entry for book of jubilees the catholic encyclopedia one of 8 bible encyclopedias freely available, this encyclopedia is one of the most comprehensive resource on catholic teaching, history, and information. Besides the kindle edition, history of mediaeval jewish philosophy is available in pdf from a library of congress website, which will be of most value for those who need precise page references.
Secretary new york board rabbis, united nations delegate synagogue council american. The book of judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the septuagint and in the roman catholic and eastern orthodox christian old testament of the bible, but excluded by jews and protestants. The book of judith has a dramatic setting that appealed to jewish patriots and it warned of the urgency of adhering to mosaic law, generally speaking, but what accounted for its enduring appeal was the drama of its narrative. Catholics with very few exceptions accept the book of judith as a narrative of facts, not as an allegory. Of jeromes letter, see the catholic encyclopedia online. The book of judith is a parable, or perhaps the first historical novel according to jewish authorities, who do not place it among the writings of the tanakh or hebrew bible. Joseph philip sternstein born august 20, 1925, american. The book of judith considered canonical by roman catholics, apocrypha literature by protestants, and noncanon by jewstells the story of the ignominious defeat of the assyrians, an army bent on world domination, by the hand of a hebrew woman judith. Jan 31, 2020 the book of judithconsidered canonical by roman catholics, apocrypha literature by protestants, and noncanon by jewstells the story of the ignominious defeat of the assyrians, an army bent on world domination, by the hand of a hebrew woman judith. It has been said that the book contains numerous historical, which is why many scholars now accept it as unreliable history.
The encyclopedia of jewish symbols and millions of other books are available for amazon kindle. Judith is included with the apocrypha in the king james version. Judith, the character from whom the book takes its name, is not mentioned in the storys first half 1. Book of judith public encyclopedia services home page. The persecution of antiochus epiphanes would provide a.
How can one even begin to compare books like exodus the second book of the torah, and exodus the novel about the creation of the state of israel by leon uris. Readers will refresh their knowledge of the patriarchs and matriarchs, the. Judith definition of judith by the free dictionary. The book contains numerous historical anachronisms, which is why many scholars. From abraham to zabars and everything in between, on this mornings jm in the am. It is not clear whether the book of judith was originally written in hebrew or in greek.
Jewish mythology is a major literary element of the body of folklore found in the sacred texts and in traditional narratives that help explain and symbolize jewish culture and judaism. The book of judith is similar to the biblical book of esther in that it also describes how a woman saved her people from impending massacre the book relates that nebuchadrezzar, king of assyria, sent his general holofernes on an expedition against palestine. Probably composed in the 1st or 2nd century ce, it is of jewish origin and is usually considered to be part of the apocalyptic literature. It is regarded as scripture by beta israel ethiopian jews, but not by any other jewish or christian groups.
The holocaust encyclopedia is the only comprehensive singlevolume work of reference providing both a reflective overview of the subject and abundant detail concerning major events, policy decisions, cities, and individuals. Jun 12, 2019 this oneofa kind book is a comprehensive encyclopedia of jewish art from all over the world. Abraham, apocalypse of the 1901 jewish encyclopedia. Book of judith, apocryphal work excluded from the hebrew and protestant biblical. Details of vocabulary and phrasing point to a greek text written in a language modeled on the greek developed through translating the other books in the. In the bible, a jewish heroine who rescued her people by slaying an assyrian general. Disproves lds claims that joseph smith received the book of abraham through revelation and proves that joseph smiths source for his translation was a pagan egyptian text, the book of breathings. Names that have gained currency in english books on jewish subjects, or that have. An overview judaism is the religion of the jews, an ethnic, cultural, and religious group that has its origins in the ancient near east, has lived in communities as members of collective polities and as individuals throughout the world, and now numbers about thirteen million people, chiefly concentrated in the state of israel, north america, and europe. The secret made its appearance with the book, and neither the death of its possessors nor the lapse of centuries led to the complete discovery of the secret. Did the chosen nation start with abraham abraham is widely known as the first jew1including in some excellent articles on our site.
Concerning his religious awakening in his fathers house, the book of jubilees. There are no jewish catalogues of apocrypha corresponding to the christian lists cited above. The testament of abraham is a pseudepigraphic text of the old testament. Book of judith article about book of judith by the free. The book of jubilees contains none of this kind of attitude. The apocrypha are works writtencollected at the same time as most books of the bible but not included in the hebrew canon. Elements of jewish mythology have had a profound influence on christian mythology and on islamic mythology, as well as on world culture in general. Achievements joseph philip sternstein has been listed as a noteworthy rabbi by marquis whos who. The book of judith has a tragic setting that appealed to jewish patriots and it warned of the urgency of adhering to mosaic law, generally speaking, but what accounted for its enduring appeal was the drama of its narrative. Book of jubilees the catholic encyclopedia bible encyclopedia. Abraham is evidentlythough this is not directly statedone of the seven bearers of ma. The ancestors of israel are portrayed in the bible as living a nomadic or pastoral life among the older population of palestine before the time of the israelite settlement c. Elements of jewish mythology have had a profound influence on christian mythology and on islamic mythology, as well as on world. Judith s story is written in the book of judith which is codified as the fourth book of the apocrypha.
Other abraham traditions are to be found in the old testament pseudepigrapha, especially in the book of jubilees. Vulgate these additions are detached from their connection and brought together in an appendix to the book, with a note remarking that they are not found in the hebrew. Ruths name provides the title for the book of ruth, probably a piece of historical fiction set in the time of the judges. Esther is a book in the old testament that tells the story of a jewish beauty queen chosen to be the king of persias wife. The book of judith is a literary innovation, although not in its narrative motifs, which are traditional. Spirituality books of 2019an unorthodox guide to everything jewish deeply knowing, highly entertaining, and just a little bit irreverent, this unputdownable encyclopedia of all things jewish and jewish covers culture, religion, history, habits, language, and. Rabbi gary zola talks about his book, we called him rabbi abraham. It is more an idiosyncratic list of people, places, things, and food, most of which add definition to the word jewish. In the one other book with which he is associated, an edition of the psalms, accompanied by a reprint of elia levitas yiddish translation and a new simplified digest of two classic medieval hebrew commentaries, shalom bar abraham.
Book of judith, apocryphal work excluded from the hebrew and protestant biblical canons but included in the. The phrase bosom of abraham occurs only once in the new testament, in the parable of the rich man and lazarus in the gospel of luke. In modern usage, an apocryphal book is any book not part of the bible. List of books and articles about abraham biblical figure. The book is included in the roman catholic and orthodox christian old testament, but relegated. Torrey, however, goes too far when he says see jewish encyclopedia, book of judith that the writer aimed at nothing more than to write a tale that would amuse. This suits the portrayal of judith as a chaste widow and the book s emphasis on following religious rules. Shalom bar abrahams book of judith in yiddish, printed in cracow in 1571. In that sense, the book of mormon could be called an apocryphal book. The consensus of scholars is that the book of judith was written in the 2nd cent.
Abraham is now regarded as one of the most influential people in all of history. Book of genesis simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The book of abraham is thus smiths restoration of a hellenistic jewish work, which was itself a digest of traditional jewish legends, fleshed out with scenes from egyptian funerary documents. Judith is set after the return from the exile, long after nebuchadnezzar was dead, and while assyria had been conquered by the babylonians, the state nebuchadnezzar ruled over was the new babylonianchaldean empire, with its capital in babylon, not nineveh. The book of judith is a story of balance and counterbalance that makes the point that gods people have all they need to survive if they rely wholeheartedly on the covenant.368 124 941 688 647 55 722 1297 366 938 1098 747 1523 1506 15 716 104 997 69 305 1175 1317 1156 146 1494 1154 529 190 260 964 891 606 682 1471 637 304 1024 168 1186 773 1205 390 248 1016 617 472 798 890 669